Using PowerShell Behind a Proxy Server |

If your computer is on a corporate network behind a proxy server, by default you will not be able to access external web resources from your PowerShell CLI. For example, you won’t be able to get the content of an external web page using the Invoke-WebRequest cmdlet, update the help using update-help, connect to Azure/Microsoft 365 tenant (Exchange Online PowerShell module), install modules from PSGallery, or RSAT capabilities, download application packages from external package repositories (using package management or Winget package manager). In this article, we will show you how to configure PowerShell to access the web through a proxy server with authentication.

Let’s try to update PowerShell Help on a computer behind a corporate proxy server:


Or visit an external web page:

If your computer can only access the web through a proxy and not through a direct connection, the command will return an error:

Update-help : Failed to update Help for the module(s) ‘DhcpServer, DirectAccessClientComponents….’  with UI culture(s) {en-US} : Unable to connect to Help content. The server on which Help content is stored might not be available. Verify that the server is available, or wait until the server is back online, and then try the command again.
Invoke-WebRequest: Unable to connect to the remote server.
InvalidOperation: (System.Net.HttpWebRequest:HttpWebRequest).

Find-Module modulename

Unable to resolve package source '

Can't connect to Internet from PowerShell on Authenticated Proxy Server

The fact that Powershell (or rather, the .NET class System.Net.WebClient, which these cmdlets are used to access external resources over HTTP/HTTPS) do not use the proxy server settings specified in the user settings. Let’s take a look at how to configure proxy server settings and authenticate with the Powershell console.

Set WinHTTP Proxy Server Settings for PowerShell

Check the current system proxy setting from PowerShell:

netsh winhttp show proxy

As you can see, proxy settings are not specified:

Current WinHTTP proxy settings:
Direct access (no proxy server).

netsh winhttp show proxy

You can import proxy server configuration from Windows Settings (Internet Explorer):

netsh winhttp import proxy source=ie

or set them manually:

netsh winhttp set proxy ""

set netsh winhttp proxy

You can specify a list of IP addresses or site names to which you do not need to use a proxy server to connect (bypass list):

netsh winhttp set proxy "" bypass-list= "10.*,172.*,192.168.*,*"

You can check if a connection to a specific URL is through a proxy: ([System.Net.WebRequest]::GetSystemWebproxy()).IsBypassed("

powershell: check proxy connection

if the order is returned FalseThe connection to this URL will be done through the proxy configured in your PowerShell session.

If the proxy server requires authentication, an error like “(407) Proxy Authentication Required” will appear when you try to run a PowerShell command. For example, when trying to connect to your Azure tenant using the AzureAD module:


An error occurs:

The remote server returned an error: (407) Proxy Authentication Required.

Next, let’s see how to authenticate to a proxy server with PowerShell.

Proxy Authentication with PowerShell

Let’s look at two ways to authenticate to a proxy server: You can use Windows SSO authentication or specify user credentials for authentication manually.

If you are authorized on your computer under a domain account, and your proxy server supports Active Directory Kerberos, or NTLM authentication (if you haven’t disabled it yet), you can authenticate on the proxy server with the current User can use the credentials (you do not need to re-enter your username and password):

$Wcl = new-object System.Net.WebClient
$Wcl.Headers.Add(“user-agent”, “PowerShell Script”)
$Wcl.Proxy.Credentials = [System.Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultNetworkCredentials

If you need to manually authenticate to the proxy server, run the following command and specify a username and password in the Windows Security Credential Request window.

$Wcl=New-Object System.Net.WebClient

powershell: get credentials to authenticate on proxy server

You can now try to access an external website or update help with Update-Help command.

Using PowerShell from behind an Authenticated Proxy

Or, if you have configured a proxy connection in a PowerShell session, the command should return the external IP address of your proxy server:

(Invoke-WebRequest -uri "

As you can see, the Invoke-Web Request cmdlet returned data from an external site webpage!

If you don’t want to use proxy settings for the entire PowerShell session, you can use the special parameters of the Invoke-WebRequest cmdlet to authenticate to the proxy as the current user:

Invoke-WebRequest -ProxyUseDefaultCredentials -Proxy

Or you can request user credentials interactively:

$ProxyCreds = Get-Credential
Invoke-WebRequest -Proxy "" -ProxyCredential $ProxyCreds

The above method allows you to configure proxy server settings and authenticate in classic Windows PowerShell 5.1 (How to install PowerShell version?).

configuring proxy connection for powershell core

In newer versions of PowerShell Core (6.x, 7.x), System.Net.HttpClient The Invoke-WebRequest, Find-Module, Install-Module, etc cmdlets use the System.Net.WebRequest class instead of the System.Net.WebRequest class to make web requests.

Accordingly, to set proxy server settings in PowerShell Core, you need to use the command:

[System.Net.Http.HttpClient]::DefaultProxy = New-Object System.Net.WebProxy('

To authenticate over a proxy under the current Windows user:

[System.Net.Http.HttpClient]::DefaultProxy.Credentials = [System.Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultCredentials

To interactively request user credentials for proxy authentication:

[System.Net.Http.HttpClient]::DefaultProxy.Credentials = Get-Credential

PowerShell Core also supports special Windows environment variables that you can use to enable proxy settings:

  • HTTP_PROXY – proxy for HTTP requests
  • HTTPS_PROXY — proxy for HTTPS requests
  • ALL_PROXY – Proxy for both HTTP and HTTPS
  • NO_PROXY – proxy exclusion address list

You can set environment variables with the following PowerShell command:


You can save the username and password for authentication on the proxy server in environment variables (not secure):


Check that proxy environment variables are set:

Dir env:

powershell core set http proxy

In PowerShell Core on Linux, you can export system proxy settings from environment variables using the following:

export HTTP_PROXY=

Enforce proxy server settings with a PowerShell profile file

You can create a PowerShell profile file to automatically import proxy settings when PowerShell starts.

To do this, run the command that will create a PowerShell profile file (C:\Users\username\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1,

notepad $PROFILE (either notepad $PROFILE.AllUsersCurrentHost -if you need to apply PowerShell profiles to all users of the computer).

The PowerShell Profile is a simple PS script that always runs when you open the PowerShell.exe console.

Copy your PowerShell code into the Notepad window. For example, you are using Proxy Auto-Configuration (PAC) Files to automatically configure proxy server settings on the user’s computer. You can specify the url address of the pac file and authenticate on the proxy server with the following powershell profile script under the current user.

# Force PowerShell to use TLS 1.2 for connections
[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
[]::DefaultWebProxy = new-object'')
# If you need to import proxy settings from Internet Explorer, you can replace the previous line with the: "netsh winhttp import proxy source=ie"
[]::DefaultWebProxy.credentials = [System.Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultNetworkCredentials
# You can request user credentials:
# System.Net.WebRequest]::DefaultWebProxy.Credentials = Get-Credential
# Also, you can get the user password from a saved XML file (see the article “Using saved credentials in PowerShell scripts”):
# System.Net.WebRequest]::DefaultWebProxy= Import-Clixml -Path C:\PS\user_creds.xml
[]::DefaultWebProxy.BypassProxyOnLocal = $true

By default, the PowerShell script execution policy does not allow PS scripts to be run, even from PowerShell profile files. To allow PS1 scripts to run, you must change your PowerShell Execution Policy setting. run command:

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

Help Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1 File and restart the PowerShell console. Now, when you open a new powershell session, the code in the profile file is executed and the proxy settings are imported into your session.

Show Current Proxy Server Settings with PowerShell

You can get the current proxy settings in Windows from the registry with the PowerShell command:

Get-ItemProperty -Path 'HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings' | Select-Object ProxyServer, ProxyEnable

In my example, the proxy server’s address and port are:
Proxy Server Enabled: proxy enabled = 1

get powershell proxy settings

You can also get webproxy settings like this:


System.Net.WebProxy GetDefaultProxy powershell

If necessary, you can enable the use of proxy with the following command:

Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings' ProxyEnable -value 1

To disable proxy:
Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings' ProxyEnable -value 0

How to Change Proxy Settings in Windows with PowerShell?

You can set proxy settings using PowerShell. For example, the following PowerShell function allows you to change proxy settings, but first, it checks the proxy server’s availability and port response on it using the Test-Netconnection cmdlet.

function Set-Proxy ( $server,$port)
If ((Test-NetConnection -ComputerName $server -Port $port).TcpTestSucceeded) {
Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings' -name ProxyServer -Value "$($server):$($port)"
Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings' -name ProxyEnable -Value 1
Else {
Write-Error -Message "Invalid proxy server address or port:  $($server):$($port)"

Set-Proxy 3128

You can add additional addresses to the proxy exclusion list:

$ProxyExceptionList = ";*;*"
$ProxyProperty = Get-ItemProperty "HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings"
If ($ProxyProperty.ProxyOverride) {
$OldValue = $ProxyProperty.ProxyOverride
$NewValue = $OldValue+$ProxyExceptionList
$ProxyProperty | Set-ItemProperty -Name ProxyOverride -Value $NewValue
} else {
Write-Warning "List of proxy overrides is empty!"

Additionally, you can save the login and password for authentication on the proxy server in the registry:

Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings' -name ProxyUser -Value "proxy_username"
Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings' -name ProxyPass -Value "proxy_password"

Note that earlier builds of Windows 10, Windows Server 2016 and earlier versions of Windows use the old and insecure TLS 1.0 protocol by default for PowerShell connections. This is why you may get the following error when trying to search for a module in PSGallery:

WARNING: Unable to resolve package source '.

To use TLS 1.2 in a PowerShell connection to endpoints, run the command

[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12

The problem is described in more detail in the article “Unable to resolve package source when installing PowerShell modules”.

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