A Guide to Dynamic Loading in ZSH


Autoloading, commonly known as dynamic loading, is a feature available in the ZSH shell that allows it to load functions and scripts in a dynamic format. This allows you to improve startup time and memory usage by loading only the code you need when you need it.

Therefore, there is no need to load everything into memory if the shell is not in use. When in use, code is loaded and discarded when execution is complete.

In this guide, we will teach you everything you need to know about autoload in ZSH to work with dynamic loading. We'll cover this clearly with lots of examples and explanations.

zsh autoload

As we mentioned, the ZSH autoload feature allows the shell to load functions and scripts on-demand, increasing the performance and resource efficiency of your shell.

Instead of loading all functions at startup, you can load them dynamically when you actually need them.

Some of the most prominent and powerful features of Autoload include:

  • fast shell startup
  • Decrease in memory usage
  • cleaner configuration

how it works

Before going into practical examples, let's understand the inner workings of autoload in ZSH.

Autoload features allow ZSH to look for autoload functions in a directory defined in the “fpath” array. By default, this path is set to “$HOME/.zsh/functions”.

When we run a command that matches an autoloaded function, ZSH searches for it in “fpath” and loads it into memory if located.

Note: Autoloaded functions follow a specific naming scheme that helps ZSH identify them as autoloaded functions. naming convention “_funcname” pattern where Usually the first letter of the function name.

This explains the functionality of autoload.

configure fpath

To get started with autoload, we need to configure the “fpath” array to contain the directory where the autoloaded functions will live. Add the following line to your “~/.zshrc” file:

fpath,,$home,.zsh,Work $fpath,

This line links “$HOME/.zsh/functions” to the “fpath” array, ensuring that ZSH looks for autoloaded functions there.

After modifying the “~/.zshrc” file, make sure to reload it for the changes to take effect as shown in the following command:

autoloaded function

Next, let's create a simple autoloaded function that prints a welcome message. To follow naming conventions we will name it “w_welcome”.

Create a file named “w_welcome” in the autoload function's directory ($HOME/.zsh/functions) and add the code as follows:

#!/usr/bin/env zsh
Celebration you are welcome,, ,
echo “Welcome!”

Save and close the file.

Next, make the file executable to ensure that ZSH can load the script.

chmod +x $home,.zsh,Work,you are welcome

autoload function with alias

We can create aliases that automatically invoke loaded functions. Aliases provide a more convenient way of making automatically loaded tasks easily accessible which reduces the hassle of ordering commands.

In the ZSH configuration file, we can create an alias for a function as follows:

Surname Welcome,'welcome'

Finally, save the file and build the source:

Now, we can use the welcome alias to invoke the autoloaded “w_welcome” function.

It is executed only when we need it and is not loaded on launch.

auto load configuration

To manage autoloaded functions, you can use the autoload module. For example, use the following command to view a list of currently autoloaded functions:

Example output:

_absolute_command_path ,, ,
# undefined
underlying auto load – Juz
_AK ,, ,
# undefined
underlying auto load – Juz
_acpi ,, ,
# undefined
underlying auto load – Juz
_acpitool ,, ,
# undefined
underlying auto load – Juz
_acroread ,, ,
# undefined
underlying auto load – Juz
_adb ,, ,
# undefined
underlying auto load – Juz

To remove autoloaded functions, use the following command:

Updating fpath

If you create a new directory for the autoloaded functions, remember to update your fpath to “~/.zshrc” accordingly to include the new directory:

fpath,,$home,.zsh,Work $fpath $home,.zsh,Work,new directory,

Remember to reload the “~/.zshrc” file after making changes.

Management of autoloaded functions

As ZSH configurations grow, you may need to effectively manage and organize autoloaded tasks. This can help you stay organized and reduce repetitive code or errors when ZSH is unable to locate a defined script.

To stay organized, it is a good practice to organize autoloaded functions into separate files. For example, you could create a directory structure like this:

│ ├── Task1_func1
│ ├── Task1_func2

│ ├── Task2_func1
│ ├── Task2_func2

Organizing the files this way ensures that related functions are stored under the same directory and hence are easy to find.


In this comprehensive tutorial, we explored ZSH autoload, a powerful feature that allows you to dynamically load functions and scripts when needed. We covered features like configuring the “fpath” variable, naming conventions, autoload configuration, function management, and more.

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By Ranjan